Parentage testing using DNA

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Osama’s death has brought into focus the on–the–spot DNA test to confirm his identity and thus his death. Here is a brief about DNA testing.

As per AABB (American Association of Blood Banks), 414,843 paternity tests were performed in 2008.
DNA testing is now directly available to the general public.
The primary objective of parentage testing is to determine whether a man accused of paternity (i.e., alleged father) could be accurately excluded as the biological father of a given child.
Advances in DNA technology have made it possible for DNA parentage testing to produce highly conclusive evidence of parentage or absence of parentage.
Indications for testing: 1. Court ordered DNA analyses to determine responsibility for child support and custody rights. 2. Determination of a child’s biological parents. 3. Prenatal paternity testing for pregnant women who are unsure about who has fathered their child.
DNA paternity tests cost typically range from $400 to $600. The cost of ultrasound plus amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling is not included.
DNA is present in most cells of the body. One can take samples from the inside of the mouth with a cotton or a Dacron swab; a few drops of blood from a finger or a heel prick; for prenatal DNA parentage testing 5–10 ml of amniotic fluid (5 to 10 mL) by amniocentesis or by chorionic villus sampling in late first trimester (sent directly to the DNA lab or to a Cytogenetics laboratory for initial culture).
DNA parentage testing typically analyzes nuclear DNA.
Parentage testing uses randomly repeated DNA length polymorphisms to compare DNA samples between individuals.
When the alleged father is not available, DNA grandparentage testing can produce conclusive results.
Family reconstruction by DNA analyses can provide highly conclusive results, if a sufficient number of family members with known relationship to the deceased is available for testing.
The combined paternity index (CPI) is the ratio of the chance that a tested man, given his entire analyzed genetic makeup, is the biological father of the child in question, compared to the likelihood of a random man producing the child. A CPI of 1000 (equivalent to a probability of paternity of 99.9 percent) means that odds are 1000 times to 1 that the tested man is the biological father in comparison to a random man in the general population. A combined paternity index of 1000 should be utilized as a minimum requirement to establish paternity.
The DNA test can be done within hours.
Dr KK Aggarwal
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Krishan Kumar Aggarwal

History Created:96-Minute CPR Jump-Starts Heart

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A 54-year-old man with post MI ventricular fibrillation regained spontaneous circulation after a dozen defibrillator shocks and continuous CPR for 96 minutes with full physical and neurological recovery reports Dr Roger D. White, at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn in a case report published online April 20 in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

31 minutes after the arrest and first aid a helicopter transport crew arrived and continued applying defibrillator shocks to the man who did not have a pulse, yet showed signs of systemic blood flow as measured by an end-tidal carbon dioxide sensor. Emergency respondents administered a total of 12 defibrillator shocks and kept the patient’s blood flowing with continuous chest compressions.

A key piece of technology on the scene was capnography, which measures how much blood is flowing through the lungs and subsequently to other organs. Capnography has been used to monitor patients in operating rooms but is not often used by ER when treating cardiac arrest. As the measurement remained sufficiently high, the rescuers were encouraged to continue resuscitation efforts.

At the hospital, he was stabilized and taken to the cath lab and was stented a 100% occlusion in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery. The patient was in acute cardiogenic shock, which was stabilized with an intra-aortic balloon pump. The patient was discharged after 10 days.

 Dr KK Aggarwal

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