Vitamin D does not prevent type 2 diabetes in people at high risk

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Taking a daily vitamin D supplement does not prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk, according to results from the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study, funded by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

The study enrolled 2,423 adults with a range of physical characteristics, including sex, age, and body mass index, as well as racial and ethnic diversity, which helps ensure that the findings could be widely applicable to people at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted at 22 sites across the United States.

Subjects were randomly assigned to either take 4,000 IU of the D3 (cholecalciferol) form of vitamin D or a placebo pill daily. All study participants had their baseline vitamin D levels measured. The subjects were screened every 3 to 6 months for an average of 2.5 years to determine if diabetes had developed. Researchers then compared the number of people in each of the two study groups that had progressed to type 2 diabetes.

At the end of the study, 293 out of 1211 participants (24.2%) in the vitamin D group developed diabetes compared to 323 out of 1212 (26.7%) in the placebo group, although this difference was not statistically significant. The study was designed to detect a risk reduction of 25% or more.

These findings presented at the ongoing 79th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in San Francisco and simultaneously published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

(Source: NIH, June 7, 2019)

Dr KK Aggarwal

Padma Shri Awardee

President Elect Confederation of Medical Associations in Asia and Oceania   (CMAAO)

Group Editor-in-Chief IJCP Publications

President Heart Care Foundation of India

Past National President IMA

Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of acquiring heart disease

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Diabetes is a massive economic and health burden

New Delhi, 24 March 2019: People with diabetes are at a higher risk of death from heart diseases. Almost 58% of deaths among people with type 2 diabetes are due to cardiovascular events. High glucose levels associated with diabetes damage blood vessels, resulting in problems with blood pressure and vision, joint pain and other maladies. India currently shoulders 49% of the global diabetes burden, representing the ‘lifestyle disease’ as a massive public health obstacle for the second most populated country in the world.

Type 2 diabetes normally affects older adults but is being increasingly noticed among younger Indians. They are at a greater risk of life-threatening complications including kidney damage and heart disease as well.

Speaking about this, Padma Shri Awardee, Dr KK Aggarwal, President, HCFI, said, “A high-calorie diet rich in processed and junk food, obesity, and inactivity are some of the reasons for the increased number of younger people with diabetes in the country. Not getting checked in a timely manner and not following the doctor’s protocol further complicates matters for them, putting them at a risk of acquiring comorbid conditions at a relatively younger age. There is also a belief that because young people with Type 2 diabetes do not need insulin, it is not as sinister as it seems. However, this is a false notion. This condition requires immediate treatment and management. A young person with Type 2 diabetes may have no symptoms. If there are some, these may be usually mild, and in most cases develop gradually and include thirst and frequent urination.”

A young person with Type 2 diabetes may have no symptoms. If there are some, these may be usually mild, and in most cases, develop gradually and include thirst and frequent urination.

Adding further, Dr Aggarwal, who is also the Group Editor-in-Chief of IJCP, said, “Small and gradual changes can be made in the family so that no one is left out. This will also be encouraging for youngsters with adults setting examples for a healthy lifestyle. Such changes can help a youngster lose weight (if that is the issue) or help them make better eating choices, thereby lowering the chances of developing Type 2 diabetes. This is truer for those with a genetic susceptibility to the condition. Operating as a team, a family, is much more likely to be successful.”

Some tips from HCFI

  • Losing a modest amount of weight — about 15 pounds — through diet and exercise can reduce the risk of getting type 2 diabetes by as much as 58% percent in people at high risk.
  • In type 1 diabetes, tight control of blood sugar can prevent diabetes complications.
  • Choose healthy foods to share.
  • Take a brisk walk together every day.
  • Talk with your family about your health and your family’s risk of diabetes and heart disease.
  • If you smoke, seek help to quit.
  • Make changes to reduce your risk for diabetes and its complications — for yourself, your families and for future generations.

Lack of sleep major cause for several lifestyle disorders including Type 2 diabetes and infertility

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At least 6 to 7 hours of sleep are needed for optimal body functioning

New Delhi, 18 March 2019: More than 80% of those suffering from shift work sleep disorder are from the IT and BPO sector, according to recent estimates. This is because they work in the same shifts, disrupting their sleep pattern. Shift Work Sleep Disorder occurs when the body’s internal biological clock gets altered or confused. While there are many professionals who work at night, it is the employees of the IT sector who are the most affected, mainly due to the regular night shift patterns.

For those with this sleep disorder, the symptoms are like chronic jet lag. Irritability, anxiety and depression are among the symptoms. The hormonal cycle is messed up. We are noticing menstrual irregularities among women and infertility among men.

Speaking about this, Padma Shri Awardee, Dr KK Aggarwal, President, HCFI, said, “Majority of the Indian population remains unaware of the fact that common ailments such as obesity, depression, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease are all linked to an irregular sleep pattern. Sleep deprivation also is a key influencer of stressed relationships, decreased performance at school and work, accidental injuries, memory and cognitive impairment and a poor quality of life. It is thus essential that awareness be raised about good sleep habits and the importance of getting adequate sleep. The present generation is mostly found sleeping only for 3 to 5 hours in a day and then compensating their sleep requirements by sleeping for 14 hours on the weekends. This is extremely dangerous for their overall health. They also depend on caffeine and energy drinks to stay awake, which impact their overall cognitive ability.”

A recent study also indicates that people working irregular or rotating shifts with usual night shifts were 44% more likely to have Type 2 diabetes. In addition, compared to day workers, all shift workers were more likely to have Type 2 diabetes, except for permanent night shift workers.

Adding further, Dr Aggarwal, who is also the Group Editor-in-Chief of IJCP, said, “The time has come for each one of us to be cautious about the impact our day to day actions have on our health and take necessary preventive measures. Sleeping well and on time is a harm reduction methodology as it can help avoid many diseases and health complications over time.”

Some tips from HCFI

  • Try to go to bed and get up at the same time every day — at the very least, on weekdays. If need be, use weekends to make up for lost sleep.
  • Create a sleep sanctuary. Reserve your bedroom for sleep and intimacy.
  • Banish the television, computer, smartphone or tablet, and other diversions you’re your bedroom
  • Taking a nap at the peak of sleepiness in the afternoon can help to supplement hours missed at night. But naps can also interfere with your ability to sleep at night and throw your sleep schedule into disarray.
  • If you need to nap, limit it to 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Avoid caffeine after noon and go light on alcohol. Caffeine can stay in your body for up to 12 hours. Alcohol can act as a sedative, but it also disturbs sleep.
  • Get regular exercise, but not within three hours of bedtime. Exercise acts as a short-term stimulant.

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